BiondVax Pharmaceuticals Ltd. (NASDAQ: BVXV) is a biopharmaceutical company based in Israel that develops and sells treatments for infectious diskishu coin redditeases. On August 26, BiondVax Pharmaceuticals Ltd. (Nasdaq: BVXV) announced its earnings for the second quarter, reporting that its earnings per share were NT$0.01. Cash and cash equivalents during this period were 39 million NIS, lower than the 48 million NIS in the same period last year.
The agreement is optimized for NFT transactions and use in the emerging blockchain game field. Currently, it is using the "Plgo ethereum 教学ay-to-Earn" model to motivate users to use the platform with IMX token rewards. . The IMX token plays several key roles in the operation of the network: users need to use IMX to pay 20% of the transaction fee, and users can use the token to vote on governance proposals. In addition, IMX holders can stake the tokens to obtain transaction fees paid by users to the network.When talking about L2, if Optimism and Arbitrum are not mentioned, it is obviously inappropriate.
Both of these two largest Optimistic Rollups networks have raised millions of dollars in funding, and none of them currently issue local tokens. In addition, despite their short time to go online, these two L2 networks have incurred millions of dollars in transaction fees, and these fees did not flow to their users in any way. Although it is unclear whether they will issue local tokens, if they initiate retroactive airdrops for early adopters, it may be worthwhile to become an active user of the two L2 networks.The season of L2 is finally here.Now, investors with different risk tolerance and different exposure needs can benefit from the rapid development of L2 in several ways. Whether through infrastructure, Dapps, or local asset farming, investors have many different opportunities.On September 15th, Ryan Watkins, a researcher at encryption analysis agency Messari, tweeted that the supply of decentralized stablecoins exceeded US$10 billion, accounting for 8% of the total supply of stablecoins. The DAI of the MakerDAO platform has the highest market share of decentralized stablecoins.Subsequently, on September 17, Ryan Watkins once again tweeted that the total supply of stablecoins this week has exceeded 120 billion U.S. dollars. In the second quarter, the transaction volume of stablecoins on the blockchain exceeded US$1.7 trillion, a year-on-year increase of 14 times. At the same time, the supply of decentralized stablecoins has just exceeded 10 billion U.S. dollars and will continue to erode the share of centralized stablecoins.
Watkins also believes that stablecoins have the characteristics of local digitization, global accessibility, and resistance to seizure. It can provide individuals and institutions around the world with easy access to U.S. dollars to meet offshore U.S. dollar demand. The offshore U.S. dollar market may exceed 57 trillion U.S. dollars, so stablecoins have broad prospects and are extremely disruptive. Therefore, they are closely watched by regulators.The above two figures show the demand for stablecoins. Based on this market background, as users of stablecoins, whether they are centralized stablecoins or decentralized stablecoins, they may be affected to a certain extent by the price changes of stablecoins.The interesting point is: in zkSync network payment gas, you can use other tokens instead, you don’t need to have ETH, for example: in Gitcoin donation, if you donate with DAI in zkSync network, you can directly use DAI as Gas fee, for those tokens that do not have a liquid market price, the fee can also be paid with other tokens.
In the zkSync network, transaction costs are mainly divided into two parts: the off-chain part and the on-chain part. The off-chain part is the calculation cost of state storage and zero-knowledge proof generation, which is fixed, and the official estimate is about 0.001 US dollars per transfer. The on-chain part is that the verifier must pay Ethereum gas to verify the zero-knowledge proof. The cost is mainly based on the gas price of the Ethereum main network, but this is several orders of magnitude cheaper than the normal ETH/ERC20 transfer cost.Proof mechanism: zero-knowledge proofAdvantages of zkSync: Every transaction data is stored on the main chain, which is more secure; it is faster to exit the second-tier network (ideally a few minutes, but the actual measurement takes about 2-3 hours).zkSync challenges: generating zero-knowledge proofs requires a lot of computing resources, and the hardware threshold for zkSync verifiers is relatively high; it is difficult to implement general smart contract functions (this is a problem that all adopters of ZK Rollup solutions currently face).
Optimism EthereumOptimism Ethereum uses the Optimistic Rollup expansion plan. On January 15 this year, the Optimism team started the trial operation of the mainnet.
The Optimism team hopes to establish instant transactions and scalable smart contracts on Ethereum. The team has created an EVM-compatible solution OVM on Layer 2. Optimism is a scaling solution with a complete cross-layer migration function.At present, only projects that apply for the whitelist can be deployed on the Optimistic Ethereum mainnet. There are not many projects that have been built on Optimism, mainly including cross-chain bridge Optimism Gateway, Hop.Exchange, Celer bridge; DEX platforms uniswap, Kwenta, Rubicon, 1 inch; and 13 applications including option trading platform Lyra and Synthtix.Projects that have been built in OptimismThe official said before that "the conditions for completely removing the whitelist are not yet available, and a major upgrade is planned in the next three months." On September 13th, Optimism announced that it would double the throughput limit of the main network to handle up to 200,000 transactions per day.
When using the Optimism network, the following two points are completely different from Ethereum. You must be clear:First: The transaction is processed according to the first-in-first-out principle, so increasing the gas price will not affect the execution speed of the transaction.Second: Currently, Optimism uses gas limit to encode information about transactions executed on L2 and on L1 post transaction cost information, so do not try to modify the gas limit automatically provided by the application, otherwise your transaction may be rejected.Proof mechanism: fraud proof
Optimism advantage: Data is stored on the main chain, and it is easier to support general smart contract technology.Optimism challenge: The exit period of the second layer is long (7 days). This is also a problem faced by all Layer 2 solutions that use fraud proof mechanisms. The overall security is slightly lower than that of the main chain and ZK solutions.
Arbitrum was originally an academic project at Princeton University, established by the team Offchain Labs.Arbitrum's proof mechanism is similar to Optimism above. The difference is mainly reflected in the difference in the data uploaded to the main chain. In the process of processing, when someone thinks that the second-level data is in dispute, they can pay a deposit and submit a proof. At this time, the contract will arbitrate it. In the Optimistic Rollup scheme, a complete contract will be simulated and executed on the main chain. Calling consumes high costs; in the Arbitrum Rollup scheme, firstly, through multiple rounds of interactions at the second layer, the dispute scope is reduced before being simulated on the main chain, the number of interactions is reduced, and the cost of dispute resolution on the chain is reduced. This is the biggest difference between the two schemes.
In May of this year, Arbitrum was opened to developers for the first time. On September 1st, the public beta was launched, and the whitelist mechanism was also offline. Similar to Optimism, Arbitrum currently has a clear limit on the upper limit of network processing capacity (80,000 arbgas/s), which roughly matches the current capacity of Ethereum L1, but Arbitrum also stated that as the system becomes stable, the speed limit will be gradually increased in the future. , And continue to improve performance.It is also this limitation. At present, the gas fee of Arbitrum is not very low, which is criticized by everyone, especially when a large number of transactions are influx and reach the upper limit of network capacity, then the cost of L2 will rise further, but compared to the main chain That said, the cost can still be reduced by dozens of times.Comparison of handling fees for Layer 2 transfer of ETH Data source: l2feesIt is undeniable that Arbitrum has fired the first shot of Layer 2 ecological development, but at present, Arbitrum is flooded with too many native dog projects, and everyone must pay attention to risks.Proof mechanism: fraud proofArbitrum advantages: Data is stored on the main chain, and it is easier to be compatible with EVM; the traditional Optimistic Rollup solution is optimized, which can further reduce costs.
Arbitrum challenge: The exit period of the second layer is longer (7 days), and the overall security is slightly lower than that of the main chain and ZK solutions.StarkNet is a Layer 2 expansion general platform led by StarkWare. It is similar in type to the zkSync we mentioned above, and the difference is mainly reflected in two different zero-knowledge proofs.
zkSync uses zk-SNARKs; StarkNet uses zk-STARKs. For space reasons, the details of the two technologies will not be discussed. We only need to know the final difference: zk-SNARKs on-chain storage space and gas consumption Both are smaller, but zk-STARKs are better in terms of safety.In January of this year, StarkWare announced the roadmap for the development of StarkNet. The team will complete the final Layer 2 ecological deployment (planet, constellation, and universe) in three stages, gradually transition from single-application Rollups to multi-application Rollups, and finally realize the entire governance DAOization.
StarkNet roadmap plans to complete the aggregation of multiple applications before the end of the yearBut currently, StarkNet is still in the testing phase. On September 1, StarkNet released the Alpha 2 test version, which supports the interaction between smart contracts for the first time. It is reported that the team is currently preparing for the release of the StarkNet Alpha mainnet, which will be approved by then Online application in the form of whitelist.
In fact, in addition to the StarkNet mentioned above, Starkware has also proposed another expansion solution, StarkEx (Validium). Currently, there are not many applications that use the StarkEx solution. They are the following four: DeversiFi, dYdX, ImmutableX and Sorare.Although StarkEx also belongs to ZK Rollup, not all data is uploaded to the main chain at the first level. Therefore, theoretically, it can have higher scalability and processing speed. It is precisely for this reason that compared to other Rollup solutions, StarkEx network Data availability and security risks are higher.Proof mechanism: zero-knowledge proofStarkNet advantage: Data is stored on the main chain, which is more secure than other ZK expansion solutions.
StarkNet Challenge: EVM compatible technology is more difficult, and the gas fee is slightly higher than zkSync.Polygon used to be called Matic Network, and the technology used in its L2 chain is plasma.
Plasma essentially belongs to the category of side chains. First, create a smart contract on Ethereum as a connection between the Ethereum main network and plasma sub-chain. This plasma sub-chain can even be a private chain, and data calculation and processing are both In the plasma sub-chain, the executors of layer 2 only need to periodically submit a "state commitment" to the main chain to ensure the credibility of the data off the chain. The security of this scheme is relatively low, so it is basically used by many mainstream research institutions. Abandoned.For example, the OMG Foundation, which previously focused on plasma, also proposed a new expansion research plan this year-Boba network, and what Boba uses is Optimistic in the Rollup plan.
In view of the awkward position of Polygon, many people regard the current Polygon as a pseudo two-layer, but Polygon positions itself as a Layer 2 solution aggregator, which to a certain extent has found another development path for Polygon. Moreover, Polygon has also acquired the ZK Rollup expansion network Hermez launched by iden3, which reduces the doubts about the pseudo-second layer to a certain extent.Proof mechanism: fraud proof
Polygon advantage: extremely high scalability, EVM is easily compatible.Polygon Challenge: Security is the lowest among the above-mentioned schemes.Overall, Optimistic Rollup is the easiest solution to implement under the current technical background, but its essence still does not fundamentally solve the security problem of assets. The ZK Rollup solution may become the final Layer 2 solution, but how to catch up The first-mover advantage of Optimistic Rollup ecological development is also a problem in the ZK Rollup solution.Looking at all the different Layer 2 general solutions, we found that the current Layer 2 does not have a perfect solution. Different solutions have made a trade-off between safety and efficiency, either the former or the latter, but the most The bottom layer and the core effective solution can only be implemented on layer1, which is also the importance of Eth2 sharding.
In the trading market, there is a faintly visible grass snake gray line behind every rise and fall. The cryptocurrency market is no exception.According to data from Coingecko, on September 18, 2021, the price of MX on the Matcha Exchange (MEXC) platform rose 28% from yesterday, reaching a maximum of 1.93 USDT. This is the second time that MX has recorded an intraday increase of more than 20% since the 15th.
This is all related to a rumor circulating in the community.Matcha was acquired by Bybit?
On September 15, there was a rumor that "Matcha was acquired by Bybit" from the community, and the price of MX quickly rose from 1.3 SUDT to 1.6 USDT.On September 16th, in response to the rumors of matcha being acquired, the relevant person in charge of MEXC responded that "the rumors are untrue" and said, "At present, MEXC is increasing its global layout and making positive progress in overseas business. In the future, it will continue to adhere to the user-centered approach. Principle layout of the global market".